Gluten Free & Specialty

Gluten-free diet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Wheat

A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that excludes gluten, a protein composite found in wheatbarleyrye,[1][2] and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt,[1] kamut, and triticale[1][2]). The inclusion of oats in gluten-free diet remains controversial. Avenin present in oats may be also toxic for coeliac people.[2] Its toxicity depends on the cultivar consumed.[3] Furthermore, oats are frequently cross contaminated with gluten-containing cereals.[2]

Gluten causes health problems in sufferers of gluten-related disorders, which include coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS),gluten ataxiadermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and wheat allergy.[4] In these patients, the gluten-free diet is a demonstrated effective treatment.[5][6][7] In addition, at least in some cases, the gluten-free diet may improve gastrointestinal and/or systemic symptoms in other diseases, such as irritable bowel syndromerheumatoid arthritismultiple sclerosis or HIV enteropathy, among others.[8]

Gluten proteins have low nutritional and biological value, and the grains that contain gluten are not essential in the human diet.[9] However, an unbalanced selection of food and an incorrect choice of gluten-free replacement products may lead to nutritional deficiencies. The replacement of gluten-containing cereals flour with gluten free flours in commercial products traditionally made with wheat or other gluten-containing cereals may lead to a lower intake of some important nutrients, such as iron and B vitamins. Some gluten-free commercially replacement products are not enriched / fortified as their gluten-containing counterparts and often have greater lipid / carbohydrate content. Especially children often abuse the consumption of these products, such as snacks and biscuits. Nutritional complications can be prevented by a correct dietary education.[2]

A gluten free-diet should be mainly based on naturally gluten-free foods with a good balance of micro and macro nutrients. Meat, fish, eggs, legumes, nuts, fruits, vegetables, potatoes, rice, maize are all appropriate. If commercially prepared gluten-free replacement products are used, it is preferable to choose those are enriched or fortified with vitamins and minerals.[2] Furthermore, a healthy alternative to these products are pseudocereals (such as quinoaamaranth, and buckwheat) and other minor cereals, which have high biological and nutritional value.[2][9]